Life, Longevity, & Anti-Aging Coaching

Month: November 2020

Creatine for Cognitive Health.

Creatine for Cognitive Health/aging brain.

click here source url writing about happiness source link how quickly does viagra work definition essay practice here medico receta cialis uc nursing essay essay typer espaol english college essay writing follow what colleges are good for me how to cite sources in a paper chicago style brave new world utopia or dystopia essay gre issue and argument essays callahan euthanasia essay click here generic levitra capsules source site thesis outline example format here Creatine can assist with brain/cognitive functioning (9).  The brain needs significant amount of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and research demonstrates that the brain requires a substantial quantity of ATP when engaged with difficult cognitive, or thought related, tasks (9).  Creatine supplements can improve the amount of phosphocreatine in the brain.  Phosphocreatine or creatine phosphate (CP) is type of creatine molecule that rapidly mobilizes reserves of high energy phosphates in both muscles and the brain, and which can recycle ATP, the main provider of energy at the cellular level.  Basically, creatine supplements help with ATP production in the brain.  Creatine can also assist with cognitive functioning by improving both mitochondria functioning and dopamine levels (9;25;26).  The first, mitochondria, mainly perform cellular respiration, meaning it takes nutrients from the cell, breaks them down, and turns them into energy.  The second, dopamine, is a hormone in the body and a neurotransmitter in the brain.  As a neurotransmitter it plays a pivotal role in motivation.  Creatine is especially helpful with cognition in times of stress (sleep decrepitation, exercise, and stressful cognitive activities like math). Vegans and vegetarians, who tend to lack protein in the diet, may also be assisted by this.

Regarding age related cognitive decline and creatine, research is showing that after two weeks of supplementing older adults show a substantial improvement on both recall ability and memory (49).  And, in these subjects specifically creatine supplements could assist with the following: boost brain function; protect against neurological disorders; and diminish age-related muscle loss and concordant loose of strength (50).  Keep in mind that creatine from food sources take a lot longer to digest than those from supplements.

Creatine can be an adjunct, or additional, treatment for neurological disorders. Creatine might have protective qualities concerning neurological disorders.  Research (primarily animal) implies that creatine can, when combined with medical treatment, help treat the symptoms of neurological diseases, as well as their progression, and even positively impact the life expectancy of those suffering from neurological diseases.  This is because several neurological disorders have the same factor in common, a reduction in brain phosphocreatine (27).  They also involve an overabundance in stress related reactive oxygen species or free radicals (28).  Creatine supplements can increase levels of phosphocreatine, so it can help avoid, or at least slow down the development of, neurological problems.  Creatine also helps address free radicals.

Dementia: Creatine helps cells work efficiently, so they don’t have to work as hard, the aging process is slowed and the cells survive longer before dying off.  Individuals diagnosed with dementia (Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s) as well as other conditions have exhibited improvements to brain health after taking creating.  It helps to reduce the dosage of other medications and lowers the number of side effects, and helps improve oxygen in the brain.  The last improves mental functioning and lowers mental fatigue.  It also improves outlook/mood.  Creatine can help improve cognitive functioning, even when the person lacks sleep. 

Alzheimer’s dementia: may be reduced through the taking of creatine (50).  Creatine has, in animal studies, proven to protect brain cells from damage related to beta amyloid plaque toxicity.  Alzheimer’s disease is believed to be caused by a build up of beta-amyloid plaques and tangles in a substance called tau.  Both are produced within brain cells, reducing or eliminating the cells ability to function properly.  Research is showing that those individuals who develop Alzheimer’s have lower levels of phosphocreatine when they enter into the first stages of the disease (50).  They experience up to an 86% reduction in the activity of an enzyme (creatine kinase) that stimulates creatine to make energy in cells.  They can also experience up to an 14% reduction of in creatine kinase protein expression (50).  At its worst, Alzheimer’s symptoms involve confusion, deteriorating cognitive functioning, a loss of long-term memory, and sever dementia.  It is now thought that creatine supplementation may assist in protecting against Alzheimer’s, as creatine within cells makes energy. 

Creatine may help protect against or even help improve symptoms of dementia.  This is because it improves the way cells thought out the body work.  All cells have mitochondria, this is where food etc., is made into energy.  It becomes dysfunctional before the onset of dementia.  It is this dysfunction that may be the root of dementia (109).  Cells slowly stop working properly because when energy in the cells is made, by products can also be produced.  When energy is created a by-product is also made.  It is called lipofuscin or aging pigment.  Ideally, it is washed out of the cell.  But, with age, it starts to build up and contribute to dementia and its symptoms (problems with memory, lack of decisiveness, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and dementia).  Creatine slows cellular damage from excitotoxicity, specifically damage from a toxic substance called Abeta proteins.  It can protect cells from Abeta related damage (87;110).  This toxin is specific to Alzheimer’s disease (111).  

Creatine also assists in the removal of an age-related substance called lipofuscin.  Lipofuscin is a yellow-brown substance that is associated with age-related disruptions to cells ability to remove toxins that can cause damage.  Toxins speed up oxidative stress and damage to cells.  They also slow the cells’ ability to produce energy.  Toxins and the disruptions they cause can result in the effected cells dying prematurely (79;80).  In animal research, creatine has been shown to reduce the presence of lipofuscin (82).  This allowed for the animals to live up to 9% longer in comparison to animals with the same physical condition but not given creatine.  The nine percent in mice when converted into human years is approximately seven years for a human.  It should also be noted that the animals given creatine also performed better on tests of neurobehavior (82;113).

Parkinson’s disease may be treated partially with creatine. This condition is characterized by a decrease in dopamine, which is a key neurotransmitter for brain health (2;29).  An excessive drop in dopamine production within the brain can lead to brain cell death, as well as many symptoms of Parkinson’s disease including the following: loss of muscle function, tremors, and speech impairments (29).  Research (using animals) on creatine and Parkinson’s disease, has shown that creatine supplements can prevent up to 90% of the comorbid loss in dopamine (27).  Concerning other Parkinson’s symptoms, sufferers often try to maintain muscle mass to improve strength and functioning, so they weight train.  Creatine is a great assistant in building muscle (30;31).  One study those Parkinson’s patients who took creatine and did regular load-bearing exercise improve more on measures of strength and daily functioning when comparison to Parkinson’s patients who only did load-bearing exercise (32).  Keep in mind that it may be necessary for Parkinson’s patients to take more creatine than healthy individuals.   Some studies of Parkinson’s patients and creatine have shown that patients taking between four and ten grams per day, the recommended amount for healthy people, don’t show a significant improvement on measures of daily activity (33).

Huntington’s disease can benefit from creatine.  In a (animal) study of creatine supplements and Huntington’s, supplements restored brain phosphocreatine levels to 72% of the subjects’ pre-disease levels, in comparison to only a 26% improvement in the no creatine control subjects (34).  Further, this renewal of phosphocreatine facilitated the preservation of daily functioning.  It also lowered cell death by about 25% (34).

Creatine supplements may assist with treating other neurological problems (35; 36;37; 38).  Keep in mind that much of the research has been done on animal subjects.  These diseases include: Alzheimer’s, Brain injury, spinal cord injury, Epilepsy, and ischemic stroke.  Creatine is also showing promise regarding Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig’s disease.  ALS is an ailment that affects motor neurons, which are necessary for movement.  In this case the brain loses the ability to communicate with muscles.  The body loses the ability to move at will.  Eventually, the muscles break down, and the ability to walk, talk, eat, swallow, and breathe is lost.  In one study creatine improved motor functioning, while reducing muscle loss.  It also prolonged the survival rate of patients by about 17.5% (39).

Stroke damage may be improved by creatine: stroke is often the result of a lack of sufficient blood supply to the brain, or some of its parts.  Stroke most often occur as a result of insufficient blood supply to areas of the brain.  Decreased blood flow to the brain is associated with excessive amount of a substance called lipofuscin within the brain (78). Lipofuscinbuild up is the end result of a disruption of the cells ability to remove dysfunctional components.  This ability is called autophagy.  As autophagy slows down, and lipofuscin builds up, there is an upswing in oxidative stress, and a concurrent decrease in energy, leading to cell death (79;80 81).  Animal studies are showing that creatine has the ability to boost cellular energy and to reduce built up lipofuscin within the brains of the subjects (82; 83).  Creatine also assists with the preservation of necessary levels of high-energy phosphate-based molecules within tissues (brain, heart, muscle) needed in times of high energy usage (84;85; 86).  Further, creatine enhances the production of ATP, an energy transfer molecule, which helps full cellular metabolism   High levels of creatine support the body’s production of ATP, the universal energy-transfer molecule, when ATP itself is used up by these power-hungry tissues (87;88).  Some research suggests that cellular level brain damage due to stroke is associated with higher levels of Lipofuscin.  So, creatine, with its capacity for depressing lipofuscin, can be of some benefit with this aspect of stroke.  Animal studies of creatine administration after stroke (reduction in blood flow) have shown a significant reduction in brain damage regarding the size of the area damaged (89). In addition, creatine supplementation also replenished stroke depleted ATP.  Even though there were no human studies of creatine’s impact on stroke related brain damage available when the animal research was carried out, the researchers still suggested that, given creatine’s safety record, those at high risk of strokes consider creatine supplements (89).

For references and more about creatine for health and wellbeing go to the following page:

This information is for educational and entertainment purposes only. Please consult a qualified medical practitioner before making any dietary or lifestyle changes.

Bromelain for Health & Wellbeing.

Bromelain is made from enzymes found in pineapple juice and plant stems (1).  Bromelain has historically been used as a folk remedy for burns and wounds.  It has a large degree of uses.  For instance, it aids digestion when taken orally it.  It is both a natural pain reliever and a natural anti-inflammatory (2).  It is believed to be as effective as NSAIDs/non steroidal anti-inflammatory medication (5).  It slows swelling, blood clotting, and the growth of tumors, and is a natural blood thinner. 

How bromelain works:

Bromelain assists with digestion and disorders of the digestive tract.  It is an enzyme which digests protein, vitamins, and minerals.  So, by improving the breakdown and absorption of nutrients, bromelain it improves health.  It can also assist with healing problems in the bowels, like Crohn’s disease, constipation, and indigestion. 

Irritable bowel disease/IBD can help to treat inflammatory bowel disease.  An animal study showed that bromelain can help suppress IBD associated inflammation.  Here bromelain was shown to reduce the severity and incidence of spontaneous (not lab induced) colitis.  Bromelain also lowered significantly the severity of inflammation in the colon in these animals, according to histology reports.  It is believed that these results were due to bromelains anti-inflammatory effects (21).  In a study involving taking biopsied tissues from people with irritable bowel diseases (inflammatory bowel disease or IBD, Crohn’s disease or CD), and from people who were healthy.  The tissues were then treated with bromelain in Petri dishes.  The treated tissues experienced a reduction in the secretion of pro-inflammatory disease-causing factors.  The concluding of the study was that bromelain may be a new or novel therapy for irritable bowel disease (22).

Diarrhea and intestinal issues are improved by bromelain.  Bromelain can counter the effects of E. coli (Escherichia coli) and Vibrio cholera, and reduce diarrhea.  It does this in two ways, firstly by reducing the ability of the bacteria to stick to cell receptor sites on the walls of the intestines; and secondly, by disrupting the cell signals that lead to the secretion of too much liquid by the intestines, which can cause symptoms of diarrhea (23).

Bromelain can improve allergies.  It does this by moderating the immune response, and by blocking the activity of cells (called DC44 antigen-presenting cells).  Bromelain also improves the functioning of (modulates) cells that link the part of the immune system that changes in reaction to challenges, called the adaptive immune response, with the part of the immune system that remains static or unchanged, called the innate immune response (called CD 11c dendritic cells).  so, bromelain helps both the initiate immune response and the adapt the immune system in better addressing threats.  In this way it can improve or slow allergic reactions/responses like nasal congestion, itchy eyes, rashes, and runny nose.  

Sinusitis involves chronic inflammation of the sinuses.  A small study of 12 people who had sinus surgery showed that those treated with bromelain for three months had better post surgery tests (rhinoscopy results), a great improvement in their symptoms, and reported an improved quality of life.  Some research shows that bromelain can help reduce sinusitis related nasal mucus and coughing, and hay fever related swelling and inflammation (19).

Asthma can be improved with bromelain.  Bromelain reduces inflammation of the airway, reduces swelling in the bronchi and bronchioles, and lowers mucus production (3).  This last helps decrease any obstruction of airways.  In an animal study bromelain was shown to have significant anti-inflammatory activity in the subjects’ respiratory passages.  These animals also had lower numbers of pro-inflammatory enzymes etc. in their blood streams (eosinophil, leukocyte, and cellular infiltrate counts, as well as BAS CD8+ T and CD4+ cells, and interleukins IL-4, IL-12, IL-17, and IFN-a).  At the same time no damage was done to healthy cells (3).

Urinary tract infections: when mixed with antibiotics bromelain boosted their effect on UTIs (4).

Osteoarthritis: bromelain helps treat osteoarthritis because it is anti-inflammatory in nature, and arthritis is a disease of inflammation (5).  Arthritis is often related to age.  It both chronic and progressive (worsening) in nature.  It gradually reduces movement as bone related pain increases.  It causes the loss of joint mobility and can impact life quality.  Bromelain assist with osteoarthritis in three ways. It is analgesic (pain relieving).  It helps to protect joint cartilage from damage, so slows the progression of arthritis.  It can diminish inflammation related swelling and damage to joints.  So, bromelain can be a good alternative to pain medication, which can have side effects (liver and kidney damage).  Research has shown bromelain to be as effective as drugs used to treat arthritis related pain.  Called NSAID or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.  At higher doses (945 mg per day) bromelain has been shown, in human trials, to have a similar impact to prescription anti-inflammatory diclofenac.  And, an even higher dose, 1890 gm per day was shown to have a greater impact than this medication on joint swelling (6).  Some preliminary research suggests that bromelain can also reduce pain related to rheumatoid arthritis, but it is preliminary at this stage (19).

Heart/stroke: Bromelain slows or inhibits the build up of blood platelets, called platelet aggregation.  This can cause clotting or thrombosis.  It has the ability to prevent blood clot from growing and becoming problematic, called a fibrinolytic ability (6). 

Skin: Bromelain stimulates wound healing.  Its anti-inflammatory ability is one reason it is used to heal wounds (7).  It also helps to clean skin wounds and remove dead, infected, thickened or callused skin.  This is called debridement of skin.  The enzymes from pineapple are of a class needed for proper cell division, so they are important for tissues health (8).  When used topically (on skin) bromelain-based cream, with 35% bromelain, has been shown to eliminated debris from burns and to speed up wound healing (9).  Bromelain, in clinical trials, has been effective in treating the skin condition pityriasis lichenoides chronica.  This condition involves lesions that can be long-lasting.  The cause of this disease is unknow.  Treating it is problematic and results are inconsistent.  A small study involving giving bromelain orally (by mouth) to eight people (three males/five females) resulted in all eight subjects going into remission.  The study involved giving the subjects 40 mg of bromelain three times per day for one month.  Followed by giving 40 mg two times per day for one month.  And, giving the subjects 40 mg once per day for the final month.  Two subjects had a relapse after five or six months, but this went away after they took bromalin for another three months, and on the same dosage schedule.  This result was believed to be due to bromelain’s anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and immunomodulatory effects (10).

Bromelain assists with keeping skin looking young (14).  It can help to renew cells, whiten skin, and reduce the appearance of cellulite.  Bromelain’s anti-inflammatory properties means that it can reduce the inflammation associated with red, irritated skin.  Bromelain’s ability to reduce swelling also means that it can reduce age related eye puffiness.  Bromelain is an exfoliant.  It can break down proteins holding dead skin cells together.  But, as bromelain doesn’t penetrate as deeply, it is less of an irritant.

you can make a face mask from pineapple by blending it until it is creamy. Then spread it over your face and neck, avoiding eyes. Leave the mask on for five minutes and then wash your face etc. with cool water.

you can also break open a bromelain capsule and mix the powder into your night cream once and a while. it will feel tight and dry, but your skin will glow when this is washed off.

Hair: health and length may be improved with bromelain.  Bromelain is believed to improve protein absorption by the body (20).  Hair is made from protein, so if the body is breaking it down and absorbing it in greater amounts, it will improve all bodily systems, including hair.

Varicose veins: may be managed better when taking bromelain.  This condition involves the walls of veins becoming lax/relaxed, and the veins becoming larger and bulging.  Bromelain can reduce the damage done to the veins and sustain the elasticity in them.

Cancer: Bromelain is being considered as an adjunct or add on therapy for cancer (11). for instance, it disrupts the growth of malignant/cancerous cells (12).   Animal research and human research (breast cancer) demonstrated bromelain’s ability to slow or even stop tumors.  This effect was dose dependent, with the animals absorbing 40% of the bromelain they consumed through their intestinal tract.  These animals also experienced a reduction in both swelling (antiedematous) and inflammation. Bromelain has also been shown to inhibit experimentally induced tumors in animals, predominantly dose dependently, and exhibit antiedematous and anti-inflammatory activity (13).  Bromelain has the ability to modulate the way the immune system interacts with tumor causing properties, called immune-cytotoxicity.  Here substances called monocytes act to fight tumor cells, and they stimulate enzymes that help kill tumor cells called cytokines (11).

Dental health: Bromelain, when taken by mouth, can reduce swelling/edema, as well as pain and bruising in dental treatments.  It also stimulates healing and reduces healing time after dental work.  It is best to take Bromelain both before and after treatment (15;16).

Bone: Bromelain is known to help accelerate healing of bone fractures.  When it was mixed into a proteolytic enzyme formula (rutin and trypsin) and given to people healing from fractures of the long bone these patients healed faster.  They also reported less pain and needing less pain medication (17).   

Bromelain can improve antibiotics ability to work (18), it may also benefit those suffering from bronchitis and angina (19).

Interactions and precautions: consult a health care provider before taking. 

Don’t take bromelain if you are taking any of the following (19):

Antibiotics, the amount of which is absorbed may be increased by bromelain. 

Blood thinning medications like antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications (Warfarin/Coumadin, Clopidogrel/Plavix, or aspirin).  Bromelain can reduce blood’s clotting ability, so it can increase bleeding.

Sedatives: bromelain magnify the effect of the following: Alcohol, Anti-depressants (tricyclics like amitriptyline/Elavil), anti-seizure medications (Dilantin/phenytoin and Depakote/valproic acid). barbiturates, benzodiazepines (Xanax/alprazolam or Valium/diazepam), herbs (catnip, kava, valerian), and insomnia medications (Rozerem/ramelteon and Lunesta).

Bromelain side effects: are usually mild like loose bowel movements or abdominal distress.  Rare reactions (usually in those with established allergies) include skin rashes, itching and hives, as well as breathing problems and swelling in the throat and face; diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting; and in younger women, increased menstrual flow.  Keep in mind that bromelain can thin the blood and so increase the risk of bleeding during surgery.  It is advised that if taking bromelain, it be stopped at least two weeks prior to surgery (19).

Bromelain should be avoided if you have one or more of the following: a bleeding disorder or high blood pressure; a kidney or liver disease; are pregnancy; or have an allergy to the following: carrots, celery, fennel, Latex, papain, pineapple, pollen (grass and cypress), or wheat (19).

Dosage: bromelains effect is dose dependent, and different conditions and different people may need different doses.  It has been shown to be affective starting at 160 mg per day, with the therapeutic action toping out at 2000 mg per day.  The last should be divided throughout the day.  Bromelain should be taken on an empty stomach, so either before a meal or between meals.

Allergies: 500 mg twice a day                     Arthritis/joint pain: 500-1000 mg twice a day

Cancer: 1000 mg twice per day                

Digestion: 250 mg, twice a day

Injuries: 500 mg, four times a day            Surgery/wound recovery: 1000 mg twice per day.


1   MacKay, D., & Miller, A.L., (2003).  Nutritional support for wound healing. Altern Med Rev.,8(4):359-77.  PMID: 14653765.

2   Graf, J., (2000). Herbal anti-inflammatory agents for skin disease. Skin Therapy Lett.,5(4):3-5. PMID: 10785407.

3   Secor, E.R., Jr., Shah, S.J., Guernsey, L.A., Schramm, C.M., & Thrall, RS., (2012).  Bromelain limits airway inflammation in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of established asthma. Altern Ther Health Med.,18(5):9-17. PMID: 22894886.

4   Mori, S., Ojima, Y., Hirose, T., Sasaki, T., & Hashimoto, Y., (1972).  The clinical effect of proteolytic enzyme containing bromelain and trypsin on urinary tract infection evaluated by double blind method.  Acta Obstetrica et Gynaecologica Japonica., 19(3):147–153.

5   Brien, S., Lewith, G., Walker, A., Hicks, S. M., & Middleton, D. (2004).  Bromelain as a Treatment for Osteoarthritis: a Review of Clinical Studies.  Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM, 1(3), 251–257. DOI:

6   Taussig, S.J, & Batkin, S., (1988).  Bromelain, the enzyme complex of pineapple (Ananas comosus) and its clinical application.  An update.  J. Ethnopharmacol., 22(2):191-203.  DOI: 10.1016/0378-8741(88)90127-4. PMID: 3287010.

7   MacKay, D., & Miller, A.L., (2003). Nutritional support for wound healing. Altern Med Rev.,8(4):359-77. PMID: 14653765.

8   Mótyán, J. A., Tóth, F., & Tőzsér, J. (2013).  Research applications of proteolytic enzymes in molecular biology.  Biomolecules, 3(4), 923–942.

9   Altern. Med. Rev. 1998; 3:302–5.

10   Massimiliano, R., Pietro, R., Paolo, S., Sara P., & Michele, F., (2007).  Role of bromelain in the treatment of patients with pityriasis lichenoides chronica.  J Dermatolog. Treat.,18(4):219-22.  DOI: 10.1080/09546630701299147. PMID: 17671882.

11   Maurer, H.R., (2001).  Bromelain: biochemistry, pharmacology and medical use.  Cell Mol Life Sci.,58(9):1234-45.  DOI: 10.1007/PL00000936. PMID: 11577981).  It disrupts the growth of malignant/cancerous cells.

12   Taussig, S.J, & Batkin, S., (1988).  Bromelain, the enzyme complex of pineapple (Ananas comosus) and its clinical application.  An update. J. Ethnopharmacol., 22(2):191-203.  DOI: 10.1016/0378-8741(88)90127-4. PMID: 3287010.

13   Grabowska, E., Eckert, K., Fichtne,r I., Schulze-Forster, K., Maurer, H., (1990).  Bromelain proteases suppress growth invasion and lung metastasis of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells.  Planta Med., 56: 249-53.

14   Lourenço, C.B., Ataide, J.A., Cefali, L., Novaes, L.C., Moriel, P., Silveira, E., Tambourgi, E.B., & Mazzola, P.G., (2016).  Evaluation of the enzymatic activity and stability of commercial bromelain incorporated in topical formulations.  Int J Cosmet Sci.,38(5):535-40.  DOI: 10.1111/ics.12308. Epub 2016 Mar 16. PMID: 26833020.

15   Tassman, G.C., Zafran, Z.N., & Zayon, G.M., (1965).  A double-blind crossover study of a plant proteolytic enzyme in oral surgery.  J. Dent. Med., 20:51–4.

16   Tassman, G.C., Zafran, Z.N., & Zayon, G.M., (1964).  Evaluation of a plant proteolytic enzyme for the control of inflammation and pain.   J. Dent. Med.,19:73–7.

17   Kamenícek, V., Holán, P., Franĕk, P., (2001).  Systémová enzymoterapie v lécbĕ a profylaxi poúrazových a pooperacních otoků [Systemic enzyme therapy in the treatment and prevention of post-traumatic and postoperative swelling].  Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech.,68(1):45-9.  Czech. PMID: 11706714.

18   Bromelain. (1998).  Altern Med Rev.,3(4):302-5. PMID: 9734239.

19   Mount Sinai Hospital, Bromelain, Ananas comosus; Bromelainum.  Accessed at:

20   Castell, J.V., Friedrich, G., Kuhn, C.S., & Poppe, G.E., (1997).  Intestinal absorption of undegraded proteins in men: presence of bromelain in plasma after oral intake.  Am J Physiol., 273(1 Pt 1): G139-46.  DOI: 10.1152/ajpgi.1997.273.1. G139. PMID: 9252520

21   Hale, L.P., Greer, P.K., Trinh, C.T., & Gottfried, M.R., (2005).  Treatment with oral bromelain decreases colonic inflammation in the IL-10-deficient murine model of inflammatory bowel disease.  Clinical Immunology, 116(2): 135-142.  DOI:

22   Onken, J.E., Greer, P.K., Calingaert, B., & Hale, L.P., (2008).  Bromelain treatment decreases secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by colon biopsies in vitro.  Clinical Immunology, 126(3):345-352.  DOI:

23   Pavan, R., Jain, S., Shraddha, & Kumar, A. (2012).  Properties and therapeutic application of bromelain: a review.  Biotechnology Research International2012, 976203.  DOI:

This information is for educational and informational purposes only.  It is not to take the place of medical advice or treatment.   Seek out a qualified health care provider if you have questions or need help.  Dr. Grant is not responsible for any possible health consequences of anyone who follows or reads the information in this content.  Everyone, but especially those taking medication (over the counter or prescription) should talk with a physician before undertaking any changes to their lifestyle or diet (including taking supplements).

bromelain and pineapple improve skin.

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