Regarding brain  health,Dehydroepiandrosterone, or DHEA (also called androstenolone), is a very important neuroactive steroid. It modulates, or controls, the neurones’ ability to fire (called neuronal excitability) in the brain. It does this by making the brain produce GABA (acting as an antagonist).  DHEA also impacts the production of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid)  which mimics or copies glutamate in the brain.  Glutamate plays a significant role in learning and memory, as well as being responsible for sending signals between nerve cells.  DHEA also produces the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and  serotonin (20) which are important for emotional well-being and though processes.

DHEA, In its sulfated form (DHEA-S), is the most abundant steroid in the human body. It is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands, the brain, and the gonads (1). It circulates throughout the body.  It helps in the synthesis of sex hormones and other biological functions (2).  It can turn to estrogen (and androgens) in women and testosterone in men. DHEA is associated with health and longevity. Within the brain it helps neurons develop, function, and survive. In the body it helps build and maintain muscle mass.

This hormone is especially important to women regarding the production of sex hormones.  Here all estrogens, and almost half of all androgens, are synthesized from it in the peripheral tissues (3).  In post menopausal women DHEA is the primary source of female sex hormones, even though it has declined by 60% compared to pre-menopause (19).  It is so important that a lack of it is associated with most medical issues in postmenopausal women (19).

Low levels of DHEA have been connected to impaired sexual functioning, lower cognitive performance (inability to think clearly), and an inferior sense of emotional well-being (4). A lack of it is associated with depression and supplements can in fact have antidepressant like effects (18).

A supplement in the form of a sulfate can be taken to try to increase the amount of DHEA in the body (4).  Exercise can also make the body increase production of it.  Eating foods necessary to supply your body with the components needed to make DHEA is also a good idea, (see list at bottom of article).

Regarding cognitive/though related functioning, studies show that higher levels of DHEA produced by the body is associated with better global cognitive functioning in both sexes (19). In women, when it is taken as a supplement, it is associated with better concentration and working memory, but this held true only when subjects were distracted  (17).  Studies of elderly individuals using high dosses of supplements, 25 mg to 50 mg per day, did show a positive effect on cognitive or though related functioning (19).  But, the researchers voiced concern for potential side effects (though descried as mild). The hormone DHEA or Dehydroepiandrosterone (11) a is a treatment for depression (12).

Conversely, with regards to depression, in human studies it was found that supplements can improve an overall sense of well-being, can decrease fatigue, increase libido, and prevent depressive episodes (18). In one human trial of DHEA supplementation for depression, after only two weeks, half of the subjects showed an improvement of  50% or better on measures of depression.  Here Subjects  were given 30 mg twice a day for two weeks.  In another study (6 weeks in total) with subjects having the strength of the supplement increase over time (from 90 mg a day for three weeks to 450 mg a day for the next three).  The last by giving 150mg doses 3 times per day,.  Subjects who were rated as moderately depressed at the start of the trial reported improvements in sexual functioning and a 50% reduction in symptoms associated with depression.  Those subjects who responded well to DHEA were still asymptomatic 12 months later (20).

Regarding DHEA’s ability to affect psychotic symptoms, in a small human study on schizophrenics, DHEA supplements had an effect on psychotic symptoms.  Both male and female schizophrenics, taking 100 mg per day of DHEA as well as previously prescribed antipsychotic medications, showed great improvement in symptoms (20). Interestingly the women had a greater positive reaction to the supplements.

When it comes to sexual functioning and orgasims, human studies are inconstant. Some studies (on sexual gratification) show a placebo effect, and other studies show an effect due to the supplement (5).

In menopausel women experience in great vaginal problems, DHEA (1%) cream may be a good intervention for sexual problems. This is as it has been shown to improve arousal, vaginal dryness, and lubrication, as well as intensity of orgasm (5).   This is as DHEA may help deal with, or ameliorate, vaginal wall thinning.  DHEA helps make estrogen, which improves sexual functioning, lubrication, and the quality of vaginal tissues.  After menopause vaginal tissue thinning can result from estrogen and estradiol falling bellow 20 picograms in the blood.  This is very important as estrogen improves vaginal thickness so much that pre-menopausal (especially those 20 to 30 years of age) have vaginal tissues 20 to 30 cells thick.  In comparison, post menopausal women have vaginal tissues only 6 to 8 cells thick (5).

Regarding post-menopausal atrophy of the sex organs, after the age of 30, naturally occurring DHEA starts to decrease in the vaginal tissues (6) and may impact vaginal atrophy. In human studies vulvovaginal atrophy has been treated successfully with intravaginal DHEA safely. This cream (prasterone) has been shown to replace missing vaginal cell-specific intracellular hormones (estrogens and androgens).

For those women who are uncomfortable with the idea of taking HRT  sexual problems may be addressed by natural therapies like DHEA, as a dietary supplement that may help increase sexual arousal (before taking it you should talk to your doctor) (7).

When it comes to improved production of sex hormones, animal models have shown great success with supplements. For instance, in an animal study, using female animals, DHEA was successfully converted to sex hormones within 3 hours of administration (3).   Some of the conversion happened in the adrenal glands (androgens) and some in the ovaries (estrogens) themselves.  Here androstenedione (AD) rose by 264% and testosterone (T) rose by 8000% in comparison with the control animals, which did not receive the supplement.  After 6 hours, estradiol (E2) had significantly increased to about 113% more than the control animals.  Even in animals without ovaries there was an increase of 537% in AD and a 2737% increase in T, due to conversions happening in the adrenal glands.   While DHEA in female animals with intact ovaries did have an improvement in in estrogen and progesterone production in the sex organs, DHEA didn’t improve E2, estrone or E1, and progesterone or P in those with out ovaries.  Basically, DHEA supplements help to turn pregnenolone into progesterone, and estrone and androstenedione into estrogen (3).

Supplimental DHEA can improve bone density (8 18),  increase muscle mass, improve the appearance of loose connective tissue (adipose fat or tissue), and help recover one’s physical condition and appearance (8).

DHEA can be made from good fats, especially with plenty of omega 3 fatty acids. Eat pumpkin seeds, raw butter, ghee, oils like flax, palm, olive and cod liver (13).

 

Exercise has been proven to increase the production of the hormone DHEA, or Dehydroepiandrosterone (11), which may be part of the reason it is a treatment for depression (12). Increased production of DHEA is associated with improved self-esteem and reduced fatigue (16) as well as anti-aging, improved immune response (11) and improved memory (12). DHEA can change to estrogen in women and testosterone in men (15). Increased DHEA may be one of the reasons why menopausal women who exercise have been shown to assess their symptoms as being less important and so cope better with them  (41).

In Canada DHEA as a supplement is available only by prescription (9) as it is in most European countries (5). DHEA is available for sale as a supplement in the US (10).  For women a dose of 15 mg to 25 mg per day is recommended (22).

Regarding side effects, DHEA can cause confusion, anxiety, and agitation. There is concern that long term use of supplements can increase the risk of cancers associated with sex hormones, including breast cancer (21), and taking too high a dose is associated with acne (22).

Please be advised that this information is for educational and entertainment purposes only.  Please seek appropriate care from a qualified medical or mental health professional.

1   Elk, j., (2014). The dictionary of drugs: chemical data: chemical data, structures and bibliographies.   Springer. Pp. 641.

2 Hempstead, B.L. (2006).  Dissecting the diverse actions of pro-and mature neurotrophins.  Curr Alzheimer Res. 3(1): 19-24.  DOI:  10.2174/156720506775697061

3  Zhou, Y., Kang, j., Chen, D., Han, N., & Ma, H., (2015).  Ample evidence: dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)  conversion into activated steroid hormones occurs in adrenal and ovary in female rats PLoS ONE, 10(5):e0124511 tenth anniversary. DOI:  10.1371/journal.pone.0124511

4 Davis, S.R., Panjari, M., & Stanczyk, F.Z., (2011). DHEA replacement for postmenopausal women.  Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 96(1):1642-1653.  DOI: 10.1210/jc.2010-2888

5 Harrison-Horner, J., (2012).  Is DHEA the next wonder drug for menopause?  Web MD website. Women’s Health webpage. Accessed on Jan 30th, 2018.  Accessed at:  https://blogs.webmd.com/womens-health/2012/01/is-dhea-the-next-wonder-drug-for-menopause.html

6    Fernand, L., Belanger, A., Pelletier, G., Martel, C., Archer, D., & Utian, W.H. (2017).  Science of intracrinology  in postmenopausal women. Menopause, the Journal of the North American Menopause Society, 24(6):702-712.  DOI: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000808

7 National Institutes of Health, National Center for Compementary and Integrative Health web site.  Web page: NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals. What science says, Octover 2015.  Retrieved from                                http://nccih.nih.gov/health/providers/digest/depression-science#heading1

8 Ganceviciene, R., Liakou, A.L., Theodoridis, A., Makrantonaki, E., & Zouboulis, C.C. (2012).  Skin anti-aging   strategies. Dermato-Endocrinology, 4, (3), 308-319.

9 Health Canada website.  http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/nhpid-bdipsn/ingredReq.do?id=4639&lang=eng

10 Kornblut, A.E., & Wilson, D., (2005). How one pill escaped the list of controlled steroids.  The New York Times, April 17, 2005.  Accessed at: http://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/17/us.how-one-pill-escaped-the-  list-of-    contoled-steroids.html?_r=o

11 Heaney, J.L.J., Carroll, D., & Phillips, A.C., (2013). DHEA, DHEA-S and cortisol responses to acute exercise in older adults in relation to exercise training status and sex.   Age (Dordr) 35 (2):395-405.  Doi: 10.1007/s11357-011-9345-y

12  Wolkowitz, O.M., Reus, V.I., Roberts, E., Manfredi, F., Chan, T., Raum, W.J., Ormistron, S., Johnson, R.,  Canick, J., Brizendine, L., & Weingartner, H.,(1997).   Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treatment of  depression. Biological Psychiatry 41 (3): 311-318

13    Body ecology, the way to be website.  Webpage: if you really want to avoid early aging, get to know “DHEA”.   Accessed on March 17, 2017.   Accessed at:           http://bodyecology.com/articles/avoid_early_aging_dhea.php

14 Sakson-Obada, O.l, Wycisk, J. (2015).  The body self and frequency, intensity and acceptance of menopausal symptoms. Menopause Review, 14, (2), 82-89

15     DHEA and the production of male and female sex hormones (Aug 16, 2015).  Webpage: Hormones Men Women.  Website: Health Today. Accessed on: Jan 15th, 2018.  Accessed at: https://www.hrt.org/dhea-and -the-          production-of-male-female-sex-hormones/

16  Watson, S., & Mackin, P., (2006).  HPA axis function in mood disorders. Psychiatry 5 (5): 166-170.  Doi: 10.1383/psyt.2006.5.5.166

17 do Vale, S., Selinger, L., & Escera, C., (2014).  The relationship between Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), working memory and distraction – a behavioral and electrophysiologicl approach. PloS ONE, Public Library  of Science, 9(8): e104869

18 Genud, R., Merenlender, A., Gispan-Herman, i., Maayan, R., Weizman, A., & Yadid, G., (2009).  DHEA lessens depressive like behavior via GABA-ergic modulation of the mesolimbic system.    Neuropsychopharmacology, 34:577-584.  DOI: 10.1038/npp.2008.46.

 

19   de Menezes, K.J., Peixoto, C., & eras, A.B., (2016). Dehydroepiandrosterone, its sulfate and cognitive      functions. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH. 12:24-37.

20   Lake, J. MD.  DHEA improves depressed mood but not cognitive functioning.  (2017, Nov, 29th).  Psychology Today. Accessed on: Feb 22, 2018.  Accessed at: www.psychologytoday.com/blog/integrative-mental-health- care/2017/dhea-improves-depressed-mood-not-cognitive-functioning

21   American academy of neurology website.  DHEA supplement shows no effect on Alzheimer’s disease, April 7,         2003.  Accessed on: Feb 22, 2018.  Accessed at:  https://www.aan.com/PressRoom/Home/PressRelease/39

22  Murray, M., (2018).  Doctor Murray website.  DR. Alzheimer’s disease webpage, What is Alzheimer’s disease?  Accessed on: Feb 22, 2018.  Accessed at:  doctormurray.com/health-conditions/Alzheimer’s-disease/