Creatine References


Rawson, E.S., Clarkson, P.M.,Price, T.B., & Miles M.P., (2002).  Differential response of muscle phosphocreatine to creatine supplementation in young and old subjects.  Acta Physiol Scand.;174(1):57-65. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-201x.2002.00924.x

Persky, A.M., & Brazeau, G.A.. (2001).  Clinical pharmacology of the dietary supplement creatine monohydrate.  Pharmacol Rev.;53(2):161-76. Accessed at:

Williams MH, & Branch JD., (1998).  Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: an update.  Journal of American College of Nutrition.;17(3):216-34. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.1998.10718751

Vandenberghe K,, Goris, M., Van Hecke, P., Van Leemputte, M., Vangerven, L., & Hespel, P., (1997).  Long term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training.  J Appl Physiol (1985).;83(6):2055-63. DOI: 10.1152/jappl.1997.83.6.2055

Branch, J.D.,(2003). Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: a meta-analysis.  Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.;13(2):198-226. Accessed at:

6 Graef, J. L., Smith, A. E., Kendall, K. L., Fukuda, D. H., Moon, J. R., Beck, T. W., & Stout, J. R., (2009). The effects of four weeks of creatine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on cardio-respiratory-fitness: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition6, 18. DOI:10.1186/1550-2783-6-18.

Balsom, P.D.,Söderlund,. KSjödin, B., & Ekblom, B., (1995).  Skeletal muscle metabolism during short duration high-intensity exercise: influence of creatine supplementation.  Acta Physiol Scand.;154(3):303-10. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.1995.tb09914.x

8 Bird S. P. (2003). Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: a brief review. Journal of sports science & medicine2(4), 123–132.

9 Rae, C., Digney, A. L., McEwan, S. R., & Bates, T. C., (2003). Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Proceedings. Biological sciences270(1529), 2147–2150. DOI:10.1098/rspb.2003.2492.

10 Willoughby, D.S., & Rosene, J., (2001).  Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on myosin heavy chain expression.  Med Sci Sports Exerc.;33(10):1674-81. DOI: 10.1097/00005768-200110000-00010

11 Buford, T. W., Kreider, R. B., Stout, J. R., Greenwood, M., Campbell, B., Spano, M., & Antonio, J. (2007).   International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise e. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition,4, 6. DOI:10.1186/1550-2783-4-6.

12 Deldicque, L.,Theisen, D.,Bertrand, L.,Hespel, P., Hue, L., & Francaux, M., (2007).  Creatine enhances differentiation of myogenic C2C12 cells by activating both p38 and Akt/PKB pathways.  Am J Physiol Cell Physiol.;293(4):C1263-71. Epub 2007 Jul 25. DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00162.2007

13 Aaserud, R.,Gramvik, P.,Olsen, S.R., & Jensen J., (1998).  Creatine supplementation delays onset of fatigue during repeated bouts of sprint running.  Scand J Med Sci Sports.;8(5 Pt 1):247-51.

14  Tarnopolsky M.A.., & Beal, M.F., (2001).  Potential for creatine and other therapies targeting cellular energy dysfunction in neurological disorders. Ann Neurol.;49(5):561-74.

15 Becque, M.D., Lochmann, J.D., & Melrose, D.R.. (2000).  Effects of oral creatine supplementation on muscular strength and body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc.;32(3):654-8.

16  Volek ,J.S., Kraemer, W.J., Bush, J.A., Boetes, M., Incledon, T., Clark, K.L., & Lynch, J.M., (1997).  Creatine supplementation enhances muscular performance during high-intensity resistance exercise.  J Am Diet Assoc.;97(7):765-70.

17 Jones, A.M., Atter, T., & Georg, K.P., (1999).  Oral creatine supplementation improves multiple sprint performance in elite ice-hockey players.  J Sports Med Phys Fitness.;39(3):189-96.

18 Francaux ,M., & Poortmans, J.R., (1999). Effects of training and creatine supplement on muscle strength and body mass.  Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol.;80(2):165-8.

19 Cooke, M.B., Rybalka, E., Williams, A.D., Cribb, P.J., & Hayes, A.,(2009).  Creatine supplementation enhances muscle force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals.  J Int Soc Sports Nutr.;6:13. DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-6-13.

20  Nissen, S.L., & Sharp,. RL., (2003).  Effect of dietary supplements on lean mass and strength gains with resistance exercise: a meta-analysis. J Appl Physiol (1985).,94(2):651-9. Epub 2002 Oct 25.

21  Sarem,i A., Gharakhanloo, R., Sharghi, S., Gharaati, M.R., Larijani, B., & Omidfar, K.. (2010).  Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on serum myostatin and GASP-1.  Mol Cell Endocrinol.;317 (1-2):25-30. DOI: 0.1016/j.mce.2009.12.019. Epub 2009, Dec 22.

22 Lal, A.K., & Negi, K.S., (2007).  Serum Creatine Kinase Activity in Thyroid Disorders Archana Prakash.  Journal of Medical Education and Research, 9(1):25-26.  Accessed at:

23 Sakellaris, G., Nasis, G., Kotsiou, M., Tamiolaki, M., Charissis, G., & Evangeliou, A., (2008).  Prevention of traumatic headache, dizziness and fatigue with creatine administration. A pilot-study.  Acta Paediatr.,97(1):31-4. Epub 2007 Dec 3.

24 McMorris, T., Harris, R.C., Swain, J., Corbett, J., Collard, K., Dyson, R.J., Dye, L., Hodgson, C., & Draper, N., (2006).  Effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with mild exercise, on cognitive and   psychomotor performance, mood state, and plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol.          Psychopharmacology (Berl).;185(1):93-103. Epub 2006 Jan 17.

25 Dechent PPouwels PJWilken BHanefeld F, & Frahm J., (1999).  Increase of total creatine in human brain after oral supplementation of creatine-monohydrate. Am J Physiol.; 277(3): R698-704. DOI: 10.1152/ajpregu.1999.277.3. R698.

26  Saks VAKongas OVendelin M, & Kay L., (2000).  Role of the creatine/phosphocreatine system in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration. Acta Physiol Scand.,168(4):635-41.

27 Matthews RTFerrante RJKlivenyi PYang LKlein AMMueller GKaddurah-Daouk R, & Beal MF., (1999). Creatine and cyclocreatine attenuate MPTP neurotoxicity. Exp Neurol., 157(1):142-9.

28 Allen P. J., (2012). Creatine metabolism and psychiatric disorders: Does creatine supplementation have therapeutic value?  Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews36(5), 1442–1462. DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.03.005

29  Jankovic J., (2008).  Parkinson’s disease: clinical features and diagnosis.  J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry.;79(4):368-76. DOI: 10.1136/jnnp.2007.131045.

30 Scandalis, T.A., Bosak, A.,Berliner, J.C., Helman. L.L., & Wells, M.R., (2001). Resistance training and gait   function in patients with Parkinson’s disease.Am J Phys Med Rehabil.;80(1):38-43; quiz 44-6.

31 Hirsch, M.A., Toole, T., Maitland, C.G., & Rider, R.A., (2003).  The effects of balance training and high-intensity resistance training on persons with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease.  Arch Phys Med Rehabil., 84 (8):1109-17.

32  Hass, C.J., Collins, M.A., & Juncos J.L., (2007).  Resistance training with creatine monohydrate improves upper-body strength in patients with Parkinson disease: a randomized trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair.;21(2):107-15.

33 Mo, J. J., Liu, L. Y., Peng, W. B., Rao, J., Liu, Z., & Cui, L. L. (2017). The effectiveness of creatine treatment for Parkinson’s disease: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC neurology17(1),105. DOI:10.1186/s12883-017-0885-3

34 Kaemmerer ,W.F., Rodrigues, C.M., Steer, C.J., & Low, W.C., (2001). Creatine-supplemented diet extends Purkinje cell survival in spino-cerebellar ataxia type 1 transgenic mice but does not prevent the ataxic phenotype. Neuroscience., 103(3):713-24. DOI: 10.1016/s0306-4522(01)00017-3

35 Bürklen, T. S., Schlattner, U., Homayouni, R., Gough, K., Rak, M., Szeghalmi, A., & Wallimann, T. (2006). The creatine kinase/creatine connection to Alzheimer’s disease: CK-inactivation, APP-CK complexes and focal creatine deposits. Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology2006(3), 35936. DOI:10.1155/JBB/2006/35936.

36 Prass, K., Royl, G., Lindauer, U., Freyer, D., Megow, D., Dirnagl, U., Stöckler-Ipsiroglu, G., Wallimann, T., & Priller, J., (2007). Improved reperfusion and neuroprotection by creatine in a mouse model of stroke.  Journal Cereb Blood Flow Metab.;27(3):452-9. Epub 2006 Jun 14. DOI:10.1038/sj.jcbfm.9600351

37 Rambo, L.M., Ribeiro, LROliveira MSFurian AFLima FD,Souza MA,Silva LF,Retamoso LT,Corte CLPuntel GOde Avila DS ,Soares F.A., Fighera, M.R., Mello, C.F., & Royes, L.F., (2009).  Additive anticonvulsant effects of creatine supplementation and physical exercise against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures.  Neurochem Int.; 55(5):333-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuint.2009.04.007. Epub 2009 Apr 22.

38 Hausmann, O.N., Fouad, K., Wallimann, T., & Schwab, M.E., (2002).  Protective effects of oral creatine supplementation on spinal cord injury in rats.Spinal Cord.;40(9):449-56.

39 Klivenyi, P., Ferrante, R.J., Matthews, R.T., Bogdanov, M.B., Klein, A.M., Andreassen, O.A., Mueller, G., Wermer, M., Kaddurah-Daouk, R., & Beal, M.F., (1999). Neuroprotective effects of creatine in a transgenic animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  Nat Med.;5(3):347-50.

40 Nelson. A.,G., Arnall. D,.A,, Kokkonen. J., Day. R., & Evans. J., (2001).  Muscle glycogen supercompensation is enhanced by prior creatine supplementation.  Med Sci Sports Exerc., 33(7):1096-100.

41  Op’t Eijnde, B., Ursø, B., Richter, E.A., Greenhaff, P.L., & Hespel, P., (2001). Effect of oral creatine supplementation on human muscle GLUT4 protein content after immobilization.  Diabetes.;50(1):18-23.

42  Gualano. B., Novaes, R.B., Artioli, G.G., Freire, T.O., Coelho, D.F., Scagliusi, F.B., Rogeri, P.S., Roschel, H., Ugrinowitsch, C., & Lancha, A.H., Jr., (2008).  Effects of creatine supplementation on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in sedentary healthy males undergoing aerobic training. Amino Acids.;34(2):245-50. Epub 2007 Mar 30.

43 Ju, J.S., Smith, J.L., Oppelt, P.J., & Fisher, J.S., (2005). Creatine feeding increases GLUT4 expression in rat skeletal muscle.  Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.;288(2): E347-52. Epub 2004 Oct 19.

44 Cavalot, F., Petrelli, A., Traversa, M., Bonomo, K., Fiora, E., Conti, M., Anfossi, G., Costa, G., & Trovati, M., (2006).  Postprandial blood glucose is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than fasting blood   glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus, particularly in women: lessons from the San Luigi Gonzaga Diabetes Study.J Clin Endocrinol Metab.;91(3):813-9. Epub 2005 Dec 13.

45 Roitman S, Green T, Osher Y, Karni N, & Levine J., (2007).  Creatine monohydrate in resistant depression: a preliminary study. Creatine monohydrate in resistant depression: a preliminary study.  Brief Report. Bipolar Disord 20079: 754–758.

46 Allen, P.J., D’Anci, K. E., Kanarek, R. B., & Renshaw, P. F., (2010). Chronic creatine supplementation alters depression-like behavior in rodents in a sex-dependent manner. Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology35(2), 534–546.  DOI:10.1038/npp.2009.160.

47 Maita, L., Dr., (11/25/2014). Low Libido: Is it Low DHT.  Vibrancy for Life, Your Health Unleashed website. Accessed at:

48 Hull, M., (2012).  Does creatine cause hair loss?  accessed at:

49  McMorris T1Mielcarz GHarris RCSwain JP, & Howard A., (2007).  Creatine supplementation and cognitive performance in elderly individuals. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn.;14(5):517-28.

50 Smith, R. N., Agharkar, A. S., & Gonzales, E. B. (2014). A review of creatine supplementation in age-related diseases: more than a supplement for athletes. F1000Research3, 222. DOI:10.12688/f1000research.5218.1

51 Green, A.L., Simpson, E.J., Littlewood, J.J., Macdonald, I.A, & Greenhaff, P.L., (1996).  Carbohydrate ingestion augments creatine retention during creatine feeding in humans. Acta Physiol Scand.;158(2):195-202.

52 Willis, J., Jones, R., Nwokolo, N., & Levy, J., (2010). Protein and creatine supplements and misdiagnosis of kidney disease.  British Medical Journal;340: b5027.

53  Häussinger, D., Roth, E., Lang, F., & Gerok W., (1993).  Cellular hydration state: an important determinant of protein catabolism in health and disease. Lancet.;341(8856):1330-2.

54 Olsen, S., Aagaard, P., Kadi, F., Tufekovic, G., Verney, J., Olesen, J.L., Suetta C, & Kjaer ,M.,(2006).  Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle   induced by strength training.J Physiol.;573(Pt 2):525-34. Epub 2006 Mar 31.

55 Powers, M. E., Arnold, B. L., Weltman, A. L., Perrin, D. H., Mistry, D., Kahler, D. M., & Volek, J. (2003).   Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water Without Altering Fluid Distribution.  Journal of athletic training38(1), 44–50.

56 Schiaffino, S., & Mammucari, C. (2011). Regulation of skeletal muscle growth by the IGF1-Akt/PKB pathway: insights from genetic models. Skeletal muscle1(1), 4. doi:10.1186/2044-5040-1-4

57 Burke, D.G., Candow, D.G., Chilibeck, P.D., MacNeil, L.G., Roy, B.DTarnopolsky, M.A., & Ziegenfuss T., (2008).  Effect of creatine supplementation and resistance-exercise training on muscle insulin-like growth factor in young adults. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.;18(4):389-98.

58 Smith, A.E., Walter, A.A., Herda, T.J., Ryan, E.D., Moon, J.R., Cramer, J.T., & Stout, J.R., (2007).  Effects of creatine loading on electromyographic fatigue threshold during cycle ergometry in college-aged women.  Journal of Int Soc Sports Nutr.;4:20. DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-4-20

59 Hadjicharalambous, M., Kilduff L.P., & Pitsiladis, Y.P., (2008).  Brain serotonin and dopamine modulators, perceptual responses and endurance performance during exercise in the heat following creatine   supplementation.  J Int Soc Sports Nutr.;5:14. DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-5-14.

60 Kilduff, L.P., Georgiades, E., James, N., Minnion, R.H., Mitchell, M., Kingsmore, D., Hadjicharlambous, M., &   Pitsiladis, Y.P., (2004).  The effects of creatine supplementation on cardiovascular, metabolic, and thermo-regulatory responses during exercise in the heat in endurance-trained humans.  The International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 14(4):443-460.

61 Lyoo, I.K., Yoon, S., Kim, T.S., Hwang, J., Kim, J., Won, W., Bae, S., & Renshaw, P.F., (2012).  A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of oral creatine monohydrate augmentation for enhanced response to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in women with major depressive disorder.  Am J Psychiatry, 169(9):937-945. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12010009.

62  van der Merwe, J., Brooks, N.E., & Myburgh ,K.H.,(2009).  Three weeks of creatine monohydrate supplementation affects dihydrotestosterone to testosterone ratio in college-aged rugby players. Clin J Sport Med.,19(5):399-404. DOI: 10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181b8b52f.

63 Tarride, J.E., Hopkins, R.B., Leslie, W.D., Morin, S., Adachi, J.D., Papaioannou, A., Bessette, L., Brown, J.P., & Goeree, R. (2012).  The burden of illness of osteoporosis in Canada.  Osteoporos Int. 23(11):2591-600.

64  Johnell, O., & Kanis, J., (2005).  Epidemiology of osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporos Int16 (Suppl 2):S3-7.

65   Wallimann, T., & Hemmer, W., (1994).  Creatine kinase in non-muscle tissues and cells.  Mol Cell Biochem. 133-134:193-220.

66   Gerber, I., Gwynn, I., Alini, M., & Wallimann, T., (2005).  Stimulatory effects of creatine on metabolic activity, differentiation and mineralization of primary osteoblast-like cells in monolayer and micromass cell cultures.  Eur Cell Mater15: 10:8-22.

67   Chrusch, M.J., Chilibeck, P.D., Chad, K.E., Davison, K.S., & Burke, D.G., (2001).  Creatine supplementation combined with resistance training in older men.  Med Sci Sports Exerc33(12):2111-7.

68   Gotshalk, L.A., Kraemer, W.J., Mendonca, M.A., Vingren, J.L., Kenny, A.M., Spiering, B.A., Hatfield, D.L., Fragala, M.S., & Volek, J.S., (2008). Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older women.  Eur J Appl Physiol., 102(2):223-31.

69   Gotshalk, L.A., Volek, J.S., Staron, R.S., Denegar ,C.R., Hagerman, F.C., & Kraemer, W.J. , (2002).  Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older men.  Med Sci Sports Exerc., 34(3):537-43.

70   Chilibeck, P.D., Sale, D.G., & Webber, C.E., (1995).   Exercise and bone mineral density. Sports Med19(2):103-22.

71   Chilibeck, P.D., Candow, D.G., Landeryou, T., Kaviani, M., & Paus-Jenssen, L., (2015).  Effects of Creatine and Resistance Training on Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women. Med Sci Sports Exerc47(8):1587-95

72   Lorrain, J., Paiement, G., Chevrier, N., Lalumière, G., Laflamme, G.H., Caron, P. & Fillion, A., (2003).   Population demographics and socioeconomic impact of osteoporotic fractures in Canada. Menopause.,10(3):228-34.

73   Candow, D.G., Vogt, E., Johannsmeyer, S., Forbes, S.C., & Farthing, J.P., (2015).  Strategic creatine supplementation and resistance training in healthy older adults.  Appl Physiol Nutr Metab40(7):689-94.

74   Harris, R.C., Soderlund, K., & Hultman, E., (1992).  Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation.  Clin Sci (Lond).,83(3):367-74.

75   Robinson., T.M, Sewell, D.A., Hultman, E., & Greenhaff. P.L., (1999).  Role of submaximal exercise in promoting creatine and glycogen accumulation in human skeletal muscle.  J Appl Physiol 87(2):598-604.

76   Gaffney-Stomberg, E., Insogna, K.L., Rodriguez, N.R., & Kerstetter, J.E., (2009).  Increasing dietary protein requirements in elderly people for optimal muscle and bone health. J Am Geriatr Soc57(6):1073-9.

77 U.S. National Library of Medicine, Clinical Trails website.  Webpage:  Effect of Creatine Supplementation and Exercise on Bone Health  Accessed at:

78   Sekhon, L.H., Morgan, M.K., Spence, I., & Weber, N.C., (1997).  Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion: pathological and behavioral consequences. Neurosurgery, 40(3):548-56

79   De Meyer, G.R., De Keulenaer, G.W., & Martinet, W., (2010).  Role of autophagy in heart failure associated with aging. Heart Fail Rev. 15(5):423-30.

80   Petrovski, G., & Das, D.K., (2010).  Does autophagy take a front seat in lifespan extension? J Cell Mol Med. 14(11):2543-51.

81   Terman. A, & Brunk. U.T., (2004).  Lipofuscin. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 36(8):1400-4.

82 Klopstock, T., Elstner, M., & Bender, A., (2011). Creatine in mouse models of neurodegeneration and aging.  Amino Acids, 40(5):1297-303

83 Andres, R.H., Ducray, A.D., & Huber, A.W., Perez-Bouza, A., Krebs, S.H., Schlattner, U., Seiler, R.W., Wallimann, T., & Widmer, H.R., (2005). Effects of creatine treatment on survival and differentiation of GABA-ergic neurons in cultured striatal tissue. J Neurochem. 95(1):33-45.  Accessed at:

84 Hausmann, O.N., Fouad, K., Wallimann, T., & Schwab, M.E., (2002). Protective effects of oral creatine supplementation on spinal cord injury in rats. Spinal Cord., 40(9):449-56

85 Zhu, S., Li M., Figueroa, B.E., Liu AStavrovskaya I.G., Pasinelli/ P., Beal, M.F., Brown, R.H. Jr., Kristal, B.S., Ferrante, R.J., & Friedlander, R.M., (2004).  Prophylactic creatine administration mediates neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia in mice. J Neurosci.24(26):5909-12

86 Andres, R.H., Ducray, A.D., Perez-Bouza, A., Schlattner, U., Huber, A.W., Krebs S.H., Seiler, R.W., Wallimann, T., & Widmer, H.R., (2005).  Creatine supplementation improves dopaminergic cell survival and protects against MPP+ toxicity in an organotypic tissue culture system. Cell Transplant, 14(8):537-50.  DOI:

87 Adhihetty, P.J., & Beal, M.F., (2008).  Creatine and its potential therapeutic value for targeting cellular energy impairment in neurodegenerative diseases. Neuromolecular Med, 10(4):275-90

88 Andres, R.H., Ducray, A.D., Schlattner, U., & Wallimann, T., (2008).  Widmer HR. Functions and effects of creatine in the central nervous system. Brain Res Bull.76(4):329-43

89 Zhu, S., Li, M., Figueroa, B.E., Liu, A., Stavrovskaya, I.G., Pasinelli, P., Beal, M.F., Brown, R.H. Jr., Kristal, B.S., Ferrante, R.J., & Friedlander, R.M., (2004).  Prophylactic creatine administration mediates neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia in mice. J Neurosci. 24(26):5909-12.  DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1278-04.2004

90 Santos, R.V., Bassit, R.A., Caperuto, E.C., & Costa Rosa, L.F., (2004).  The effect of creatine supplementation upon inflammatory and muscle soreness markers after a 30km race. Life Sci.;75(16):1917-24.

91 Creatine webpage.  Medicine Net website.  Accessed at:

92 Riesberg, L. A., Weed, S. A., McDonald, T. L., Eckerson, J. M., & Drescher, K. M. (2016). Beyond muscles: The untapped potential of creatine. International immunopharmacology37, 31–42. DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2015.12.034

93 Bassit, R.A., Curi, R., & Costa Rosa LF., (2008).  Creatine supplementation reduces plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 after a half-ironman competition.  Amino Acids.  35(2):425-31. Epub 2007 Oct 4.

94 Deminice, R., Rosa, F.T., Franco, G.S., Jordao, A..A, & de Freitas, E.C., (2013).  Effects of creatine supplementation on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers after repeated-sprint exercise in humans.  Nutrition. 29(9):1127-32. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2013.03.003. Epub 2013 Jun 22.

95 Deminice, R., &  Jordao, A.A., (2012).  Creatine supplementation reduces oxidative stress biomarkers after acute exercise in rats.  Amino Acids., 43(2): 709-15.DOI: 10.1007/s00726-011-1121-x. Epub 2011 Oct 19.

96 Nomura, A., Zhang, M., Sakamoto, T., Ishii, Y., Morishima, Y., Mochizuki, M.,&  Sekizawa, K., (2003). Anti-inflammatory activity of creatine supplementation in endothelial cells in vitro. British journal of pharmacology139(4), 715–720. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705316

97 Greenwood, M.,  Kreider, R.B., Melton, C., Rasmussen, C., Lancaster, S., Cantler, E., Milnor, P., & Almada, A., (2003).  Creatine supplementation during college football training does not increase the incidence of cramping or injury.   Mol Cell Biochem.,  244(1-2):83-8.

98 Trexler, E.T., & Smith-Ryan, A.E.,(2015).  Creatine and Caffeine: Considerations for Concurrent Supplementation. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 25(6):607-23.  DOI:10.113/ijsnem.2014-0193

99 Vieira, R.P., Duarte, A.C., Santos, A.B., Medeiros, M.C., Mauad, T., Martins, M.A., Carvalho, C.R., & Dolhnikoff, M., (2009). Exercise reduces effects of creatine on lung.  Int J Sports Med. 30(9):684-90. DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1224176. Epub 2009 Jun 30.

100 Braegger, C.P., Schlattner, U., Wallimann, T., Utiger, A., Frank, F., Schaefer, B., Heizmann, C.W., & Sennhauser FH., (2003).  Effects of creatine supplementation in cystic fibrosis: results of a pilot study.J Cyst Fibros., 2(4):177-82.

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